Achievements

Fundamental research results

A long-term series of investigations of the structure and functions  of  apparatus for biosynthesis of photosynthetic chlorophyll pigments was completed. New knowledge on the structure of the chlorophyll biosynthesis system was obtained, with its molecular-membrane model being developed. The nature of enzymes performing biosynthetic reactions was revealed, with mechanisms for regulating their activity being ascertained.

The conception of interaction between light and hormonal signal transduction pathways in plant cell with participation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as cross-talk element under physiological conditions and under abiotic stress was worked out. The specificity of cell responses to cGMP in plants was shown to be caused by its binding to the specific sites  on target proteins being components of vitally important regulatory signals. For the fist time cGMP-binding proteins from plants were extracted and identified by proteomics. The obtained data could be useful for the development of methods for the crop yield enhancement and development of genetically modified plants with abiotic stress tolerance.

Major mechanisms of stress factor effect on the level of intracellular calcium and gene expression of phospholipase C in transgenic plant cells were revealed that is important for plant biotechnology.

An original insight into protective role of light under the effect of stress factors on plant was given that was an important contribution to the adaptation theory of plants to stress, with a fluorescent method for estimating stress resistance of plants being developed for its application in breeding programs when selecting cereals accessions for thermo-and drought resistance.

A complex of fundamental research to elucidate the mechanisms that support pluripotent state of cultures of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells was carried out and biophysical mechanisms that regulate  their  proliferative activity  and differential directional growth were identified.

 The structural mechanisms of antitumor proapoptotic action of new generation antitumor drugs, such as ABT-737, ABT-263, TW-37, apogossypolone,  have been established. The results obtained indicate the ways of optimization of antiapoptotic inhibitors as highly potent antitumor drugs.

A model of the protein structure containing a number of partially folded thermodynamically stable states was designed. It explains anew enzyme catalysis and the main point of some serious diseases (systemic amyloidoses, prion diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cataract etc.) that is important for developing of a strategy for treatment and prophylaxis of the stated diseases.

Based on biophysical and biochemical study of transport processes in brain synaptosomes and regularities of their swelling, mechanisms of emerging serious pathology of the nervous system (brain edema) was discovered to provide new aspects in effective medical treatment of the disease.

 

Applied research results

 

for agriculture:

 

An experimental basis for genetic engineering research was set up. Potato plants with genes for synthesis of cecropin-mellitin cationic antimicrobial peptides were created. The plants demonstrated increased resistance in leaves against P. infestans, A. alternata and A. solani and tubers against  P.infestans. The obtained transgenic plants are meant to be used as a basis for development оf new pathogen-resistant cultivars and plant bioreactors for synthesis of antimicrobial peptides.

                The novel incrusting compositions on the basis of 5-aminolevulinic acid were developed and used for preplant seed treatment with a purpose of stimulating plant growth, photosynthetic pigment accumulation as well as productivity in spring barley, long-fibred flax, spring and winter rape. Formula of phytofungicide based on plant alkaloids was created.

Technologies of application of new protective and stimulatory compositions created on the basis of modification of acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer and preparation of “Seibit P” nave been  developed for pre-sowing seed treatment of spring and winter wheat, providing productivity at the level of intensive technology (45-50 centners/hectares) in conditions of drought.

 The laboratory regulations on process of reception of the film-forming protective and stimulatory composition G1 containing the modified acrylamide-sodium acrylate copolymer, microelements in chelate form, growth factors and fungicide have been  developed.

The laboratory regulations on process of production of the film-forming protective and stimulatory composition S1 containing polymer  Na-carboximetylcellulose, growth factors, microelements and fungicide.The technology for rooting of cuttings of plum VPK-1 on the basis of use of complex film-forming compositions has been developed.

The laboratory regulations on process of production of preparation “Fitalan” for pre-sowing seed treatment of grain crops.

 The technology for production of biomass of spirulina being  polyvitaminic, antitoxic, hypocholesteremic and  antiradiation medical product used as therapeutic and preventive agent for humans and food supplement for animals has been  developed. Spirulina biomass production order which allows to reduce expenses by 25% due to use of new nutrient mediums as well as new regimes and sources of light was elaborated.

 The technology for industrial production of bioactive food supplement based on chlorella suspension was developed. The regimes of chicken feeding with bioactive food supplement based on algae suspension were studied. The pilot batch consisting of 1440 L. of bioactive food addition was produced. A possibility of chlorella suspension concentrates usage as addition to chicken feeding was tested in branch “Okolica” of JSC “Minsk battery farm named after N. Krupskaya”.

Gene pool of economically useful algae species containing 50 algae strains belonging to 7 orders, 22 families and 29 genera was created. Algae species were obtained from algal collections of foreign countries as well as from natural reservoirs of the Republic of Belarus. Methodological guidelines “Preservation and reproduction of economically useful algae species in algal collections” were worked out and published.

 PCR-RFLP markers for testing the horses and cattle for resistance to stress have been  developed on the basis of DNA analysis. The methods for typing of allelic variants of the RYR1 gene associated with stress sensitivity of horses and cattle have been  developed, which will increase the genetic potential of animals and implement the directed breeding of the preferred genotypes.

The DNA-technologies based on profiling of genes responsible for plant tolerance to drought and low temperature have been developed. The technologies allow revealing perspective plant varieties possessing high tolerance to drought and low temperatures. New technologies have been  tested  on breeding material obtained from the Republican Unitary Enterprise “The Scientific and Practical Center for Arable Farming”.

for medicine:

 

Advanced technologies of cultivation of viable stem cells with desired morphological and functional properties have been developed for regenerative cell therapy. In 2010 the Institute established the Center of Cell Technologies to create  high-tech and competitive bioproduction of stem cells for transplantation to patients requiring radical replacement  and repair of damaged tissues and organs.

 A laboratory technology for 17α-hydroxyprogesterone capronate production by recombinant microorganisms Y. lipolytica has been developed.

A laboratory schedule of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone capronate production has been developed for pharmaceutical industry.

The package of measures for prepathology diagnostics and disease prevention in risk groups of mining industry workers has been developed. Supplementary minimal invasive proteomic method for the screening of workers has been proposed to solve the problem of save length of service and terms of efficient job placement in mining industry as well as reduction in the severity and incidence of occupational diseases to have social and economic importance.

Experimental regulations for production of liposomal rifampycin for inhalations have been worked out and the project of provisional pharmacopeial clause for the given medicinal form has been developed.

The liposomal form of liposome-incapsulated butaminofen drug has been developed for the treatment of viral (including herpetic) diseases .

The liposomal bien for inhalations has been designed as highly efficient integrated drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

The methods of growing of primary of cell culture of breast cancer  in  macro- and microamounts from surgery and bioptic samples have been developed. Optimal biochemical parameters characterizing the effects of antitumor drugs on cell enzyme activity, prolifiration and apoptosis  have been selected to use for assessing individual patient sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs.

 

A range of biophysical express-methods of human diseases diagnostics have been developed:

·         Method of malignant tumor diagnostics;

·         Method of red blood cell damage detection;

·         Method of differential diagnostics of surgical jaundice and viral hepatitis;

·         Method of differential diagnostics of villous-nodular synovitis and synovitis of other etiologies;

·         Method of cardiac decompensation diagnostics;

·         Method of rheumatoid arthritis differential diagnostics;

·         Method of disturbance fetation detection;

·         Method of differential diagnostics of traumatic synovitis and rheumatic arthropathy.

 

The laboratory for production of high-quality components for PCR-diagnostics (DNA-primers) has been established in 2011. Area of application of DNA-primers  is PCR-analysis in scientific, medical, sports, agricultural, veterinary, criminalistic,  medicolegal institutions and services  of defection of  genetically modified samples. Characteristics of the synthesized primers are better than those of domestic ones and are at the level of the best foreign analogues.

 

for food-processing industry:

 

The production schedules of the process of preparation for bottling or drinking still water “Akvadiv” by ozone treatment have been developed. More than fifty elaborations were applied in the institutions of the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture and Foodstuffs.