Advances and Main Results

Laboratory Of Medical Biophysics

Advances and Main Results:

Oxidative stress in human blood cells induced by physico-chemical factors is accompanied by complex structural and functional rearrangement of membranes. For example, changes in lipid bilayer rigidity, structural modifications of integral membrane proteins, inhibition of membrane-bound enzymes, changes in cell morphology (echinocytosis and vesiculation) etc. Membrane’s modification is preceded intracellular events – changes in pool of intracellular glutathione and activity of cytoplasm enzymes. It was shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of such diseases as ischemic heart disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, pathology of pregnancy.

It was shown that lymphocyte sensitivity of healthy people and oncological patients to cytostatics action is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species and change in lipid bilayer microviscosity of their membranes.

A large body of data about the influence of microelements (lead, zinc, selenium etc.) on blood cell membranes of children and adults was collected. It was established that toxic and potentially toxic metals led to membrane damage in blood cells of children under the concentration by an order of magnitude lower than maximum permissible ones. Increase in expression of the integrated membrane protein MRP associated with multidrug resistance was demonstrated in erythrocyte membranes of children with lead in organism.

Basic regularities and characteristics of phosphatidilcholine asymmetric distribution in human erythrocyte membranes were established with rise in intracellular concentration of calcium free ions under normal condition and pathology.

The nature of intrinsic and probe luminescence of pathologically changed cells, tissue sampling and biological fluids (blood plasma, amniotic and sinovial fluids, condensates of expired air) was studied under normal condition and with different diseases.

Based on the obtained results the following express-methods of human disease photodiagnostics were developed, covered by patents and applied in medical practice:

  • Methods of malignant neoplasm diagnostics.
  • Methods of erythrocyte damage diagnostics.
  • Methods of differential diagnostics of mechanical jaundice and virus hepatitis.
  • Methods of differential diagnostics of pigmented villondular synovitis and those of other etiology.
  • Methods of cardiac decompensation diagnostics.
  • Methods of differential diagnostics of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Methods of fetal growth restriction diagnostics.

More than 500 scientific papers and 2 monographs have been published, 8 patents have been issued over the period of laboratory existence.