Advances and Main Results

Laboratory of Applied Biophysics and Biochemistry

Major Results:

  • The mechanisms of membrane regulation of biogenesis of photosynthetic apparatus under heterotrophic development in etiolated plants were investigated. It was shown that etioplast proteins are responsible for the earliest biogenesis stage of photosynthetic membrane.
  • It is proved that apoproteins of photosystem I reaction centre and light harvesting complex of photosystem II could be synthesized without chlorophyll. The different mechanisms of photoregulated synthesis of pigments and proteins of photosystem I were established.
  • Participation of the protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in chlorophyll synthesis in green plants was proved. Heterogeneity of intrachloroplast protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase lokalization in envelope and outside of grane thylakoids was found. The protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase is stabile only in complex with enzymes of chlorophyll biosynthesis system.
  • The effects of pigments on dynamics of lipid bilayer of chloroplast membrane reflected in pigment-protein and protein-lipid interactions were shown.
  • It was shown, that interaction between genetic, phytohormonal and phytochrome systems of regulation of processes of growth and formation of photosynthetic apparatus is defined by level of a differentiation of a plant tissue and effect of an environmental factors.
  • The dependence of efficiency of stressful effects (hyperthermia, dehydration) on structure and functions of intraplastid membranes of cereals from stages of plastid biogeneses and a key role functioning PSA in the realization of protection mechanisms of plants in the conditions of stress is proved.
  • Stabilising action of low intensity light on a structural and functional state of photosynthetic membranes of barley at hyperthermia and the phenomenon of cross adaptation PSA at consecutive action hyperthermia and high intensity light are established.
  • The concept of increase of efficiency and stability of plants of grain cereals on the basis of optimisation of structural and functional state PSA is proved. The concept promotes realisation of potential productivity of modern varieties of grain cereals in changing conditions of an environment.
  • New scientific evidence of inhibitory effect of infringements of a respiratory metabolism in green leaves of cereal seedlings on photosynthetic activity in chloroplast which possible mechanism is decrease in general ATP pool and accumulation of products of photosynthesis in a plant cell are received.
  • Different mechanisms of influence of a stressful hormone - abscisic acids (АBA) on a structure and function state of chloroplast and mitochondria under hyperthermia, expressed in protective ABA action on photosynthesis in the absence of influence of a hormone on respiration are revealed.
  • The basic laws of pathogenesis of tomato plants are established at infection Fusarium oxysporum. The important role of stressful hormones (ethylene, abscisic and salicylic acids) for increase of a tomato plants resistance is shown at cultivation in the greenhouse on hydroponics.
  • It is established fungicidal effect of the slightly toxic preparation Fitalan created on the basis of plant alkaloids and polymeric hydrogel, on pure cultures of pathogenic mushrooms and natural microflora of seeds of cereals. It is shown, that positive influence phytofungicide on productivity of grain crops after treatment of vegetative plants is a consequence of decrease in level of their diseases against an optimum state of structure and functional activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, level antioxidant  protection and morphological parameters of plants.
  • Are found out molecular and membrane mechanisms of response of plants of spring barley at completed action hyperthermia and patogen Вipolaris sorokinianа (Sacc. ) Shoem. − the activator of widespread disease dark-brown spotted leaves. The method of testing of phytopathogenic infection of spring barley Bipolaris sorokinianа (Sacc.) Shoem. with using of indicators of oxidative stress, that essentially simplifies procedure of diagnostics of disease.
  • In vivo and in vitro conditions, the species specificity of the action of salicylic acid (SA) as an inducer of the synthesis of plant antioxidants of a polyphenolic nature was found, as well as the dependence of stimulation of the content of phenolic compounds on the degree of differentiation of plant tissues.
  • For the first time in callus tissues of red beans and peanuts, which was grown in the white light, the accumulation of phenols was stimulated as a result of SA action. It has been established that the absence of anthocyanins is a necessary but not sufficient requisition for SA-induced stimulation of the synthesis of resveratrol in peanut tissue cultures in vitro.
  • The scientific basis for the use of β-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid and its derivatives, β-1,3-glucan as immunomodulating agents, inducing a complex of defense reactions in plant cells, including activation of salicylate signaling pathways, and increasing the resistance of barley, tomato and cucumber plants to phytopathogens.

Practical elaborations:

  1. The complex of cytological and physiological indicators of economic-useful signs closely connected with formation at wheat-rye (triticale) and rye-wheat amphidiploid (secalotriticum) which can be used in the selection centers as markers in selection on efficiency is developed.
  2. New express methods of diagnostics of resistance of cereals to hyperthermia and to dehydration on the basis of a structural and functional state of photosynthetic membranes are developed and introduced in educational process.
  3. The new film-forming compositions are developed for rooting of cuttings of the fruit trees, containing ecologically safe growth factors of plants, microelements and fungicides, and providing increase of efficiency of reproduction of a valuable sawing material.
  4. The new protective and stimulatory compositions for pre-sowing seed treatment of grain crops are developed on the basis of physiologically active substances (lignitic materials, melanoidinic chemicals, flinty chemicals, succinic and terpenic acids) in a combination with microelements and the biological products (Flavobacterin , Rizobacterin). These compositions allow rise in productivity and ecological protection of crops.
  5. New innovative methods for cultivation of oil flax and technology for improving the drought resistance of flax-fiber plants in Belarus have been developed, including pre-sowing treatment of seeds and vegetative plants with protective and stimulatory composition, along with fungicides, polymers (WSP-3, Eco-Film), growth regulators (ecosil, ecosil forte, hydrohumate) and microelements in chelate form (microsil, microstim, zinc-copper complex), which ensures stable yields and quality improvement of flax products.
  6. The technology of application phytofungicide preparation Fitalan in cultivation of spring barley and winter triticale, providing productivity at level of intensive technology and protection of plants against disease at level of 65-70 % is developed. In field and industrial conditions competitiveness of preparation Fitalan with standard fungicides Alto super and Reks duo, used in modern technologies of cultivation of cereals is established.
  7. New highly effective methods of protection of a tomato and cucumber plants are developed under Fusarium oxysporum lesion in conditions of greenhouse and hydroponics, based on stimulation of protective mechanisms of a plant organism and promoting increase of survival rate of plants on 60-90 %.
  8. Immunomodulatory compositions of the IMMUAKT series containing various immunomodulating agents - β-aminobutyric acid, salicylic acid and its derivatives, β-1,3-glucan and a highly efficient, environmentally friendly technology to increase the resistance of spring barley plants to dark-brown spot disease with their use, contributing to an increase in grain yield by 3-5 centner/hectare and minimizing the use of expensive pesticides were developed. In field conditions, the high efficiency of the developed technology for the protection of spring barley plants against phytopathogens, exceeding the level of standard fungicides Amistar, Adexar and Rex Duo, has been proved.

Technologies:

  1. Adaptive technology of winter rye cropping (1999).
  2. Adaptive technology of spring barley cropping on the basis of Rizobacterine (2000).
  3. Adaptive technology of spring barley cropping on the basis of Maltamine (2001).
  4. Adaptive technology of spring barley cropping on the basis of flinty chemicals (2003).
  5. Adaptive technology of spring wheat cropping on the basis of Inkor favouring improvement of drought protection of plants (2006).
  6. Adaptive technology of winter wheat cropping on the basis of Seibit favouring improvement of drought protection of plants (2006).
  7. Technology of cultivation of spring wheat of the “Darya” variety providing pre-seeding processing of seeds by protectively-stimulating composition on the basis of a preparation «Tabolin» (2007).
  8. Technology of cultivation of spring barley of the “Dzivosni” variety providing pre-seeding processing of seeds by protectively-stimulating composition on the basis of a preparation «Cremvid» (2007).
  9. Technology of cultivation of winter wheat of the “Sjuita” variety providing pre-seeding processing of seeds by protectively-stimulating composition on the basis of a preparation « Seibit-P + BIRR» (2007).
  10. Technology of cultivation of spring barley of the “Dzivosni” variety providing pre-seeding processing of seeds by protectively-stimulating composition, consisting of a preparation Gisinar-M, containing microelements in chelates form, Gidrogumene from peat and fungicide Scarlet (2010).
  11. Technology of cultivation of spring barley of the “Magutni” variety providing preseeding processing of seeds by the protectively-stimulating composition, consisting of a preparation Gisinar-M, containing microelements in chelate form, Gidrogumate from peat and fungicide Kinto duo (2011).

Top